Did you know?

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A recent study found that there are more younger people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore than other countries in Asia. According to the same study, as many as 3 in 10 people have diabetes before the age of 40 years.

Even though diabetes is a condition that’s been known to us since the days when the Egyptians wrote about a “thirsty disease” on papyrus, it’s not always a well-understood condition. What do you know about diabetes? Try this quiz!

True or False?

1. If you have Type 2 diabetes, your body is unable to produce insulin.

2. Type 2 diabetes is more common than Type 1 diabetes.

3. Exercise helps insulin work better for those who have Type 2 diabetes.

4. The risk of developing heart disease for people with diabetes is the same as for those who don’t have diabetes.

5. About 1 in 10 people with diabetes will eventually develop kidney disease.

6. Blurred vision can be a sign of diabetes.

7. The only way for people with diabetes to control blood sugar levels is to take oral medications and/or have insulin injections.

8. Healing from cuts and sores can take longer for those with diabetes.

Find out the answers tomorrow for a healthy World Diabetes Day!

Source: https://www.singhealth.com.sg/…/…/Diabetes-Mellitus.aspx

There’s no sugar-coating it

Food is a national pastime.

We all scream for ice cream!

CNN Travel names chicken rice, char kway teow, wantan mee, chai tow kuay, and chill crab as the top 5 foods locals can’t live without (surprisingly, katong laksa didn’t make it to the top 5; it’s listed at #14). According to a 2012 Mastercard survey, locals spend as much as $262 in US dollars dining out each month. There are more local food blogs than supermarkets and more than just a few food apps (e.g., Hungrygowhere, BurpplePicky). With almost every other person a foodie, that’s quite a lot for a place less than half the size of Greater London and nearly double in its population density.

It’s not the problem of junk food here. Rather, if the National Nutrition Survey in 2010 is anything to go by, nearly half the nation dines out at their local friendly hawker centre more than four times a week (up from 40% in 2004: National Nutrition Survey by HPB). In addition to the problem of too much salt from eating out, which increases the risk of high blood pressure and vascular illness, the most recent data reveal a disturbing trend of overeating. As many as 6 in 10 locals consume too many calories, leaving them vulnerable to the risk of obesity and diabetes, and heart disease.

But there’s a bit more to the story than that. In reality, stress has a bit of a starring role, while sugar plays a vital supporting role.

We typically respond to a stressful situation at work with cortisol (since we can neither fight our co-workers nor flee from our emails, much as we try to sometimes), which encourages our appetite and desire for high energy foods — simple carbohydrates (find the science explained herehere and here). We often think of these as just sugar and honey. But in reality, they often wear clever disguises from white rice, breads, cake, muffins, cupcakes, doughnuts, and biscuits, to hot and cold desserts. And an overconsumption of these lovely, fragrant, heart-warming energy-dense foods increases the risk of impaired insulin function (read this to understand the link between overeating and diabetes).

And while prolonged exposure to stress leads to chronic inflammation, it should be recognized that sugar also contributes to inflammation. In fact, it is sugar in all its various nefarious disguises which is responsible for populating the blood stream with small, dense LDL cholesterol particles. And it’s these small, dense LDL particles which raise our risk of coronary heart disease (read this for a full review of the factors for cardiovascular disease).

So yes, stress and sugar are the bad guys (here’s an earlier blog entry on thwarting the ill intentions of sugar). But there is a simple solution. It’s called exercise.

Why we eat what we eat

Recent reports about the increasing number of people with diabetes mellitus in Singapore and who need kidney dialysis (and here’s the science behind it) are a timely reminder about the evils of simple carbohydrates. Like white bread and white rice.

Saturated fat used to be the bad guy. Now we point fingers at sugar. But refined sugar (white or brown, does it matter? it’s still sugar) is not entirely to blame. Rather, simple carbohydrates are the reason why obesity is on the rise. They’re the real villains for specific individuals, such as people who have diabetes (here’s why).

Simple carbs are the bad guy?

But knowing that fries, chips, crisps, cinnamon raisin buns swirled with icing, cupcakes, and chocolate croissants are not what you should eat regularly is one thing. Actually not eating them is quite another.

One would think that if people told you that you were large (for want of a better label: see this article for ideas), you would stop eating things responsible for your size. But in fact, it does the opposite (this Dr Oz episode is a good illustration). It has unintended consequences: We’re motivated to eat more of those sorts of things people keep telling us not to eat (presumably for our own good).

Emotional eating is the tendency for us to overeat when we’re faced with negative emotions. It’s when we eat to make ourselves feel better. Research indicates that we are inclined to eat when we feel sad. But less so when we experience positive emotions such as when we’re being included as part of a social group. Eating is also often a strategy for dealing with stress.

It could be worse. We could have non-hostile acquaintances who sabotage our good intentions not to eat things we’re not allowed to have and who put us down for making an effort (read these articles on how to questionidentify, and fix toxic friendships). So apart from putting to good use your assertive communication skills (i.e., saying no), it can be useful to have these strategies in your pocket:

1. Keep a food diary
Tracking what you eat and how you felt when you ate it, can make you aware of whether you’re guilty of emotional eating. Instead of a pen-and-paper diary, take pictures of your meals and snacks for a blog or daily facebook post to save time and handbag (or trouser pocket) space.

2. Cook your own meals
Research indicates that doing our own cooking encourages healthy dietary habits. Make a batch on the weekend and bring a portion for lunch. Or bring the constituents of a sandwich, assemble it at the office, and stick it in the toaster for a few minutes.

3. Get your RDA of fruits and veggies
Stash crunchy fruits like jambu, guava, and apples on your desk. Snack on Japanese rice crackers instead of biscuits, and stock your desk with only a few at a time. Keep a facebook diary of healthy snacks and meals to inspire others around you.

4. Make instant oats in a cup
Irish and steel-cut oats retain the whole grain benefits of rolled oats but provide a time-saving convenient snack, as long as your office pantry has a microwave. Add honey, dried cranberries, flax seeds, almonds, and normal cornflakes for crunchy texture.

5. Drink water
Buy disposable tea filters from Daiso and make your own tea bags from loose tea. Keep a stack nearby at work so you can add a tea bag to hot water, if you don’t like drinking plain water. It’s a quick fix for the “itchy mouth” syndrome. Get into the habit of saying “o sosong” or homemade barley at the coffee shop. Soon, you can order unsugared hot drinks on autopilot.

6. Sharing is caring
Share your dessert and cake with others, instead of having the whole thing to yourself. Or bring your tupperware so you can keep half of it for another day. Birthday at the office and leftover cake is calling out your name? Box it up and offer it to a colleague with many little ones to feed at home or offer it to another department!

Don’t just stand there gawking at the cake (and eat it). Do something about it!

Take control of your eating

Omega 3 and 6

We just had The Festive Weekend of the year. And it was not a fun time for people who need to watch what they eat.

A practical tip for those with diabetes has been to eat on smaller plates (Mind Your Body, 30 Jan 2014), while a useful guide for those with high cholesterol has been that they should choose foods which are low in saturated fat.

But here are some facts that you may not be aware of.

1. Not all carbohydrates are equal.

It’s always a good idea to fill up on vegetables that are coloured (e.g., broccoli, kai lan, peppers, brinjal, carrots, spinach), and to keep in mind that root vegetables are essentially sources of carbohydrates rather than fibre. But not all carbs are equal. White unpolished rice isn’t particularly diabetes-friendly. But sweet potato and yam have a lower glycaemic index (here’s a chart). And so do soba (buckwheat noodles), beehoon (freshly made rice noodles), steel-cut (Irish) oats, rolled oats, tortillas, lentils, and barley, while russet potatoes have moderate glycaemic index when eaten cold (here’s why).

2. Eat food rich in Omega 3.

Foods with omega 3 are the in thing these days (here’s the science behind it). So it makes sense that you’d want to fill up on oily fish (here’s a list), walnuts, cauliflower, and flax seeds. In fact, there’s evidence that a handful of almonds or walnuts a day decreased the bad cholesterol (low density lipoprotein or LDL) for participants in two separate studies (here’s that data). In comparison, walnuts and brazil nuts have to be eaten in moderation. For a comparison of oils and omega-3 among nuts, check out this table.

3. Don’t blame that bad egg.

The recent advice about eggs has been that what we really need to watch out for is the amount of fat in our food intake, not so much the foods with cholesterol that we eat (here’s why), particularly if our cholesterol levels and triglycerides are in the healthy range. Nevertheless, those of us with elevated cholesterol might want to be careful about eating foods which have relatively higher levels of cholesterol (read this piece of advice and this piece about quail eggs).