Quick tips to happiness

Quick Tips to Happiness

There are some reports that being happy means that we’re more productive at the workplace, judging by the desire of some organizations to increase workplace happinessIt might seem crazy what I’m about to saybut it seems that it might just be a little more important to help unhappy employees rather than find ways to make employees happier.

It’s not difficult to understand why unhappy employees are probably less engaged and less productive at their workplace (read this 2012 article). The impact of mental well-being on job productivity is plain to see. High levels of occupational stress impact psychological well-being and job satisfaction, which in turn adversely affect employee engagement and productivity. At the same time, prolonged exposure to stress not only damages our long-term memory capacity but also weakens our immune functioning. A recent study has even suggests that stress is contagious: Observing someone get stressed makes us feel stressed!

A 2011 study reveals that role conflict and role ambiguity are sources of stress which negatively impact mental well-being, while older findings point to job control (workers who have little control over their job outcome) and low levels of social support as other important source of stress. Equipping employees with stress management techniques and providing them with access to counselling (based on a sample of Malaysian fire-fighters) are frequent recommendations which arise from such studies.

Here we take a look at whether some tips for promoting happiness, even workplace happiness, are effective strategies for managing stress:

1. Exercise YES
Exercise is the key to managing stress levels. Exercise improves psychological mood and mental well-being, reduces depression symptoms and anxiety levels, and lowers absenteeism rates. The release of endorphins in exercise results in muscle relaxation and makes available neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenalin) which help make us feel good.

2. Meditation YES
Daily practice of a relaxation method resets the threshold at which we get angry (Goleman, 1998), thus helping us manage our stress levels. But this can be achieved through mindfulness where one focuses on breathing. But other methods such as pursuing creative hobbies are also found to be effective.

3. Nurturing social relationships YES
Using active coping strategies such as seeking social support (e.g., friends, family, co-workers) are associated with reduced job stress.

4. Having something to look forward to ERM…
We all need things to look forward to. That holiday in the mountains where smart devices do not work. Those weekly pilates and yoga classes. Happy people tend to have things they look forward to and find purpose in. But looking forward to it in itself is not part of the stress management kit. The self-care activities are.

5. Eliciting positive emotions and avoiding negative ones ERM…
Our ability to shift a bad mood to a good one develops in early childhood, although some of us may be better at regulating our own emotions than others. We typically aim to avoid things which elicit negative emotions for us and look towards things which promote positive emotions.

Faced with team conflicts, our desire to avoid confrontations and negative emotions can however cause us to stonewall and ignore the problem. Not particularly a productive way to solve a problem. Conversely, this tip advocates investing in things which promote positive emotions. One example is spending time in the green outdoors. It’s noteworthy though that this self-care activity works because it is an opportunity to exercise and it induces relaxation.

Emotions do affect productivity: A study in 2000 showed that teams with managers, who infused positive emotions into their team, were more cooperative and produced better task performance than teams whose managers expressed negative emotions. So being able to get ourselves out of a bad mood makes for effective teams and desirable managers. But it’s not a stress management tool.

6. Exercise fairness ERM…
Employees with fair managers are likely to be productive and engaged in their job. But fair managers can be at risk of burn out and need to take extra care of themselves! Exercising fairness is unlikely to be a useful stress management technique. Engaging in regular self-care (exercise, relaxation, social support) is.

7. Optimism, gratitude and kindness OH ALRIGHT, YES!
Changing one’s perspective on a problem is an active coping strategy which can be useful when coping with difficulties. We know it as “looking on the bright side of things” or optimism. Counsellors call this reframing the problem. It’s more effective for dealing with stressors than avoidance strategies such as distracting oneself with TV or food.

Seeing a problem as a challenge, and being therefore grateful for the challenge (previously a “problem”) and being subsequently intentionally kind to its source (known as “difficult colleague”), are useful when dealing with sources of stress. They help us navigate life’s stressful events and building mental resilience, as this article instructs.

Not surprisingly, gratitude is associated with stronger immune systems and psychological well-being, while altrustic acts are associated with better mental well-being. At the same time, it has been demonstrated that acts of intentional kindness produce improvements in life satisfaction (though note that gratitude is not a crutch for ignoring a problem).

So the first three and the last are useful for managing stress at the workplace. But there may just be a few important strategies missing from this list…

Be S.U.R.E. Know the facts. Do something about it.

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Maybe work isn’t your happy place

Maybe work isn't your happy place

Not long ago, a study reported that a substantial number of people were found to have lower levels of stress hormone while at the office than when at home. This finding downplays the stress at the workplace. To be more precise, men were the ones more likely to experience stress at the office than home.

But it doesn’t discount the fact that people still experience stress at the workplace. As many as 20% of those polled in a 2013 HPB survey reported high levels of job stress. That’s 2 in every 10 employees. And almost half of those polled in a separate survey (comprising at least 400 employees per country) reported a lack of job satisfaction. More disturbing is the finding that over half of those polled in a recent LinkedIn survey would consider sacrificing a workplace friendship for promotion. That spells for a happy workplace. Not.

Although job stress often surfaces from employees managing heavy workloads, there are many other factors which impact employee engagement. Things which managers and supervisors play an enormous role in shaping. Things like team dynamics, personality clashes, and leadership styles.

Here are 10 ways line managers can help:

1. Social support
A Gallup poll found that engaged employees were more likely to have friends at the workplace. Line managers play a role in cultivating a work culture which encourages friendships. Look here for tips.

2. Work-life balance
Employees are more likely to be engaged and productive when their leaders value sustainable ways of working, which includes supporting work-life balance. A HBR survey reveals that it’s important for leaders to practice what they preach. It’s a tune that’s getting more airtime these days.

3. Find ways to get active
We all know why we should invest in moderate to vigorous exercise three times a week and incorporate fruits, veggies, and whole grains in our daily diet. It does wonders for our cardiovascular health. It protects against dementia and certain types of cancer. But workplace health programmes may not always stress a key benefit (no pun intended). Exercise is the key to managing stress levels. Here’s an incentive for line managers to support the Get Fit programme at the office!

4. Find time to relax
Research supports the view that engaging in relaxation activities helps us manage our stress. A recent INSEAD study shows that spending just 15 minutes focused on breathing enabled people to make better decisions. Another recent study shows that creative pursuits are an effective way to recharge and destress. Daily practice of a relaxation method resets the threshold at which we get angry (Goleman, 1998). Findings that extroverts relax more easily than introverts suggests that we need to recognize that there is no one-size-fits-all way to relax. 

5. Assertive communication
Exercise is an excellent way to get back into a good mood. But we’re probably not going to be running a treadmill or smashing a ball against the wall when given extra responsibilities at work. There are no appropriate moment to go “en garde”. Or signal for us to put on the boxing gloves. We can however learn to say no. Line managers have the responsibility to encourage staff to practice assertive communication.

6. Sleep is underrated
Sleep is not just for those who party hard. It’s for those who want to learn, solve problems, remember things, and make good decisions (here’s the science). What’s more, sleep is the anti-aging treatment. But you’ve heard this many times over. But did you know that exposure to blue light which your smart devices emit in large quantities makes it more difficult to get to sleep quickly or to get good quality sleep? It’s time to tell your staff to switch off their devices and get more REM and deep sleep – essential for enhancing job performance (tips at the end of this article).

7. Use your Employee Assistance Programme!
Family conflict affects relationships at the office, not just at home. A recent study shows that conflict at the home causes employees to react negatively to co-workers and to use fewer adaptive strategies (e.g., social support, assertiveness) at work. Another study shows that mood affects productivity. Those coping with a difficult life event (e.g., bereavement, illness in the family) make more mistakes when adding two numbers together than those not experiencing such an event. Those coping with life events also report lower happiness and productivity ratings than their peers. Managers in organizations with an EAP can encourage staff to use their EAP to tackle work-related and/or personal problems. Recent research indicates that “organizational support programs, which aim to improve employee well-being, are not being used by the employees who need them most”.

8. Training evaluation
A 1997 study showed that an in-house time management training programme, which enhanced employee’s capacity for impulse control and for regulating their own emotions, had a 1989% return in a 3-week period. It’s noteworthy that employees were not given generic, practical tips but instead encouraged to manage their emotions. Most importantly, the organization measured outcomes in terms of employee performance (e.g., rated by co-workers, line managers) not satisfaction with the training programme.

9. Organizational structure
It’s not hard to see how workplace harrassment can negatively impact employee well-being and physical health, in turn affecting productivity and employee engagement. But a recent review of the literature indicates that workplace harrassment does not arise from just personality clashes alone. The way an organization is structured may make it easier for bullying to take place. So it’s ever more important now than before that senior management explicitly supports respectful behaviour.

10. Self-care
Fair bosses are the best! They produce engaged employees and productive companies. But they’re prone to burn out (evidence here). So self-care is imperative for managers and supervisors. That is, doing all the above themselves. This includes: “getting sufficient sleep, taking short mental breaks during the workday, adhering to a healthy diet and detaching from work completely when outside of the office”

Bosses, take note!

Happy National Day!

Forty-nine today! Other than celebrating by doing all the nationalistic things like eating, shopping, and movie-watching, brainstorming for 50th celebration ideas, indulging in a staycation, it’s also a good time to think about the ways in which you can rebalance your work and life.

Happy Birthday, Singapore!

Here are 4 ideas to get you started:

1. Make use of technology
Smart phones and tablets aren’t just for surfing the net, checking email and facebook, messaging, reading, and playing games. They’re also good platforms for helping us keep diaries about how much we sleep, whether we’re getting our daily recommended allowance of vitamins and fruits and veggies, and for tracking our thoughts and emotions. Apple recommends these apps to help us stay fit and maintain healthy eating, while Google has a list of 10 free health and fitness apps. And these mental health apps (mostly free) come highly recommended by PsychCentral.

2. Use household shortcuts
There are ways to get the house cleaned without spending the whole weekend on it. Unless you enjoy it, that is. If not, these life hack websites have good solutions for tidying, cooking, and other household chores. And here’s a few more.

3. Get a hobby
One way to ensure guarantee that you get off work on time is to have a hobby. There is research evidence to support it: Employees with a creative hobby are more productive at work than peers without one. Try light painting (night photography) with the fireworks on display this Saturday at the Esplanade or Clifford Pier: Nat Geo has useful tips. Here’s a list of useful websites for those relocating to Singapore, and some recreation resources for those looking for something different. Secret Singapore also has ideas for those wanting to try something really new.

4. Spend time with family and friends
Out of ideas of what to do on the weekend? Tired of meeting friends over brunch and high tea? Try an activity instead. There’s lots going on in the coming months!

Happy Eco Day!

It’s World Environment Day!

Happy Eco Day!

Last year’s theme was Think.Eat.Save – a message about food wastage. This year’s event coincides with the Singapore International Water Week. We can take this opportunity to reduce the carbon footprint at the office. It’s also a good time to take stock:

1. Going Green

  • Use canvas and cloth bags at the office and supermarket.
  • Use double-printing and recycle the other side when you print single-sided.
  • Stack a bunch of used A5 envelopes and use them like a notepad.
  • Use shredded paper for fragile packaging.
  • Switch to mugs and real cutlery. Or use biodegradable cornware. Or bring home and wash for a second cycling of non-biodegradable plastic cups and cutlery.
  • Save the extra paper napkins you inadvertently took at Starbucks for a rainy day.
  • Ask the auntie at the hawker centre to pack your food in your own tupperware.
  • Bring your own flask to take away your favourite teh halia.
  • Fill your own tumbler of boiled water instead of buying distilled or purified water!
  • Encourage your office canteen to use paper boxes instead of plastic ones.

2. Staying on top of things at the office

  • Here’s a checklist to help you get organized at the office.
  • 20 useful tips from Real Simple to help you declutter efficiently.
  • Pininterest illustrates the ways to stop things from straying from their place.
  • A little thought goes a long way: 10 office decluttering tricks
  • Having difficulty organizing your office space? Here are 21 tips.

3. Shortcuts to keeping things tidy at home

4. Self-help for would-be hoarders

It’s good time to reorganize, reflect, recycle!

Happy Earth Day!

It’s World Earth Day today!

Happy World Earth Day!

This time last year we were decreasing our light pollution at Earth Hour and dressing down at the office to stay cool with less air-conditioning. With all the lights switched off on the little red dot, it’s a good time to spend time with family and friends in ways that we used to know:

1. It’s a good night for star gazing!

  • Take out your camera and leave your shutter on bulb setting. You could try light painting with the fast moving traffic and floating kites from Marina Barrage. Or you could take some night shots of the city skyline and Marina Bay Sands. Bring along some oven-roasted curry puffs and samosas, dim sum, and a flask of tea to keep you going through the evening.
  • Picnic under the stars on Fort Canning. You don’t have to do this only once a year for Shakespeare in the Park. Cart your baguette, Edam, cabernet sauvignon, smoked salmon canapes, bruschetta, and grapes to the green to gaze at the stars. Don’t forget your mat, repellent, and fan!
  • Organize a small soiree at the Symphony Lake in the Singapore Botanic Gardens. Pack your own home-baked date-and-figgy pudding, a flask of homemade hot chocolate, a handful of hazelnuts and almonds, for an evening with the croaking frogs, chirping nightjars, and hooting owls.

2. Spend time with people you care about

  • Switch off your apps and chill out.
  • Spend time catching up with friends.
  • Play jenga, taboo, settlers, or monopoly (the card game version) to keep the energetic amused, with some konnyaku jelly on standby to keep your energy up!

3. Be a tourist in your own country

  • Explore Little India. Buy your brinjal (aubergine, eggplant) at the night market on the streets of Dunlop, Dickson, and Campbell Lane. Enjoy the peranakan-themed tiles on the houses on Petain Road.
  • Wander around Haji Lane and Arab Street like a tourist. The mini antique toy musuem on Arab Street will make you all nostalgic and gooey, while having to explain the toys to your little ones at the Mint – Musuem of Toys at Seah Street not far away will make you feel knowledgeable and wise (yes, and old).
  • Appreciate the juxtaposition of Sri Mariammam Temple, Jamae (Chulia) Mosque, on Pagoda Street and Buddha Tooth Relic Temple in Chinatown.
  • Join the Night Safari at the Zoo (again)! It’s a good night as any to see the leopard, tigers, fishing cat, tapir, and Sambar deer.

Along with stress management strategies, exercise, even if it’s only walking around the neighbourhood or exploring a toy musuem, is a helpful way to manage your stress. Make time to reconnect with your friends, family, your environment and yourself. It’s good for your mental wellbeing!

Coping With Crisis

Since the Malaysian Airlines flight MH370 disappeared off the radar, media reports include a press briefing by Malaysia Public Service Department Psychology Management Division director Dr Abd Halim Mohd Hussin, who said that, “We know that it is extremely difficult and distressing for the family to wait for the updates but as of now they are handling their emotion well through the help of our 37 caregivers and counsellors” (New Straits Times, 11 March 2014). Our local news channel, Channel News Asia, interviews Dr Marlene Lee about the psychological trauma faced by the families affected.

CNA interview: Coping with crisis

4 Things Every Woman Should Do And Know

It appears that we currently lack information about the effects of medications and dosage recommendations which are appropriate for women (see this recent report from HealthDay News). But there are many other aspects of women’s mental and physical health for which much information is available, but for which awareness is often lacking. With International Women’s Day just a day away, we propose four things you can do to get up to speed this weekend:

1. Build your professional and social network

Research supports the role of a social network for mental wellbeing at the workplace and at home. The New Zealand Chamber of Commerce has an “Inspiring Change – International Women’s Day 2014” breakfast networking event aimed at inspiring personal and career growth held at Raffles Hotel on Monday, 10 March 2014, while the Singapore Committee for UN Women has a “I am fabulous and I inspire change” cocktail networking event at the Grand Park Orchard on March 6th. Those seeking inspiration can join a sharing session with Dr Aline Wong as part of the “Be inspired, create positive change” campaign by WINGS.

All this might be a bit much for the person who doesn’t really like talking to strangers. Joining an interest group like the Nature Society will open doors to opportunities for making new friends. Gym membership, signing up for a language, dance, painting, or pottery class, and volunteering with animal shelters will also offer more opportunities to meet like-minded individuals. Here’s a list to help you get started (Expat Living also has suggestions).

2. Make time for yourself

Self-care is the fancy way of saying that we need to look after ourselves in order to stay psychologically healthy. This includes the running, dog walking, park connector cycling, spinning, kick-boxing, trampolining, healthy eating, and spa-pampering that we do every week. It is the mindfulness that everyone’s thinking about these days (“How to fight stress? It’s all in the mind“, Straits Times, 3 March 2014). It’s also the family meals and kite-flying picnics that we’ve been having with our loved ones.

And if you’re not been doing any of these, there’s no time like the present. The iLight festival at Marina Bay (Timeout has the scoop) starts this Friday 7 March 2014, while the Mosaic Music Festival celebrates its 10th year, running for a fortnight at the Esplanade starting 7 March 2014. Looking forward, Shylock, Portia and other Venetians transform Fort Canning for its annual picnic event in April: Shakepeare in the Park.

Clawing back time from work responsibilities may however be a job of its own—it may be time to put your assertiveness skills to the test. Learning to say no is a skill that takes practice. In the meantime, some girlie and parenting life hacks may come in useful. So are these useful links, particularly if you’re new to Singapore.

3. Be aware

Aware celebrates International Women’s Day with a Facebook campaign to promote gender equality. Recent media attention also puts the spotlight on workplace bullying (“Facing up to bullies at the workplace“, Straits TImes, 24 Feb 2014) and ensuing legislation (“New harrassment law could be enacted soon in Singapore“, CNA, 26 Feb 2014; “Stalking now an offence under new anti-harrassment bill“, Today, 4 March 2014).

The impact of bullying on employee mental wellbeing is well documented: “The Richie Incognito Case: Workplace Bullying or Just ‘Locker Room” Culture?‘”, APA, 21 Nov 2013, Workplace Bullying: Applying Psychological Torture at Work“, “Bullying in the workplace“, Psychology Today. A zero-tolerance policy at the workplace is key to helping employees maintain their mental wellbeing, as well as sustain employee engagement and productivity. It helps too, if employees recognise bullying behaviours and know the steps to take to protect themselves from the negative effects of bullying.

4. Knowledge is power 

Someone who collapses after running a marathon almost always seems to be a man (e.g., 2XU Compression Run). At least that’s what we get from the news. But statistics show that “women are just as prone to heart disease” as men (Straits Times, 7 May 2013; read this article by the Singapore Heart Foundation). Furthermore, women who experience high levels of stress are reported to be particularly vulnerable. Breast and colorectal cancers are among the top cancers for women in Singapore (based on figures from the Singapore Cancer Registry) but there is evidence to suggest that these and diabetes are preventable with fruits, veggies, whole grains, and an active lifestyle.

Newspaper reports about men with depression appear more often than those about women with depression, potentially fueling our use of the availability heuristic. As a result, we may think that depressive illnesses are more frequent in men than women. In fact, it is the opposite (here’s why); moreover, it’s widely acknowledged that mental illnesses affect women differently from men (the US National Institutes of Health has useful fact sheets).

You can do something about it. Even if you’re only reading about it (e.g., from the US National Women’s Health Resource Center; Women’s Health (Department of Health and Human Services); US NIH’s Women’s Health Resources). It’s a good start!

Postscript. There is local funding to promote women’s health at the workplace, though it does not quite provide for all the items on this wish list. Enjoy!

Happy Chinese New Year!

horseyear2014

Have a happy horse year!

Naaay… have a happy mentally healthy year ahead!

According to a Jobstreet survey last year, it appears that most Singaporean employees are mentally exhausted (AsiaOne, 16 Jul 2013). Not surprising and in line with the previous job surveys (read these previous posts in Jun and Aug last year). But it’s a new year (again)…so you can still work in some “me time”!

Here are 8 things you can do:

  1. Get into an exercise routine like walking the park connectors near your home.
  2. Get your family involved in your walk by organizing a meal afterwards.
  3. Challenge your brain by learning a new sport, dance, or exercise form.
  4. Get your friends to join in. Ask for discounts for introducing new classmates.
  5. Organize your catch-up get-togethers around social activities like board games, urban walks, frisbee, or kite-flying instead of just brunch.
  6. Spend time with others at the soup kitchen, willinghearts, social day care centres or senior activity centres, dog shelters, and/or special needs schools.
  7. Manage your stress. Here are some extra tips.
  8. Look after yourself and your mental wellbeing!

The key to happiness

the key to happinessBeing happy is all the rage these days. It’s been reported with much fanfare that Singapore is the 30th happiest nation in the UN’s World Happiness ReportGallup wellbeing scores for local respondents, which have achieved a delirious increase from 46% to 70% between 2011 and 2012, have also received much media attention. Local newspapers are replete with tips for being happy (“You’re happy if you think you are”, Mind Your Body, 31 Oct 2013).

But as pointed out in various local news (e.g., “A measure of happiness in Singapore”, Asia News Network, 13 Oct 2013), the UN happiness index is about overall life satisfaction, whereas Gallup wellbeing scores are self-reported ratings for questions such as “Did you smile or laugh a lot yesterday?”, “Did you feel well-rested yesterday?”, and “Did you learn something interesting yesterday?” on a scale of 1 to 10. Crucially, the UN happiness index comprises among other things gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, years of healthy life expectancy, and perceptions of corruption (“Singapore the happiest nation in Asia: UN study”, My Paper, 11 Sept 2013). In light of that, achieving a ranking at the top 20th percentile is then perhaps not wholly remarkable.

Interestingly, the 1,000 local respondents in the 2011 Gallup survey included residents living in private housing, whereas the equivalent number of local respondents in the subsequent annual survey appeared to have no representation from this group, which make up 12% of the general population. It’s also noteworthy that the face-to-face surveys were conducted between 1st September and 30th October in the preceding year of 2011, but between 22nd December 2012 and 28th March 2013 for the 2012 survey.

But that’s not what’s important. What’s important is that we understand the factors which impact our mental wellbeing, and that we try out various ways to improve our mental wellbeing.

Here’s FOUR ideas to chew on:

  1. Nothing like exercise

    Findings from a cross-cultural epidemiological study of 17, 246 young adults (Grant, Wardle, & Steptoe, 2009) indicate positive correlations between life satisfaction and physical exercise (as well as eating fruit!). Although their findings appeared to suggest a mediating role for physical health, it is clear from those and other findings that exercise improves mental wellbeing. A recent study (Maher et al., 2013) with 253 participants found that young adults reported greater life satisfaction on days when they engaged in physical activity compared to other days, even after controlling for other factors such as gender, BMI, daily fatigue). So if that’s not persuasive enough, this blog on why we need exercise from The Dr Oz Show might help convince you to get up and out to the park.

  2. Assess your mental wellbeing

    Everyone experiences stress, anxiety, and feelings of sadness from time to time. But perhaps you or someone you’re concerned about is experiencing more stress than usual and showing signs of burnout at their workplace or as a caregiver. There’s no better motivation to engage in good self-care than when you’re convinced that you need it! This anonymous self-assessment tool will help you assess your mental wellbeing, while a burnout questionnaire can be insightful for not only employees, but caregivers. Once you’ve assessed your stress levels, you might be more willing to give the other things below a go!

  3. Get some zzzs

    Sleep is highly underrated when we’re young. Okay, we’re not that young anymore but nonetheless sleep quality has a profound effect on our daily functioning. Studies suggest that getting enough rest is essential to not only our problem solving abilities, but also closely related to our mood and mental wellbeing. A study (Dinges et al., 1997) found that an accumulated sleep debt equivalent to 33% less sleep than normal negatively affected psychomotor vigilance and working memory performance. Moreover, the removal of sleep deprivation produced a significant improvement in participants’ mood. And what’s more. The link between sleep problems and mood disorders including depression has also been well established in the literature (Breslau et al., 1996; Neckelmann et al., 2007; Weissman et al., 1997). So it’s important to get some good quality REM (and not the Shiny Happy People kind)!

  4. Relaxation is key

    Tips for managing stress always seem to revolve around a million things which should make us feel good. Tips often include things like having a bubble bath, taking the dog for a walk at Pasir Ris Eco Green, having brunch at Selfish Gene Cafe with friends, peering at migratory birds at Sungei Buloh, and spending the afternoon painting at the Singapore Botanic Gardens, as well as paying someone to press your head and shoulders, crack your knuckles, pull your toes, and fold your knee across your body. Other strategies include being thankful and forgiving, being encouraging to someone else, and being aware of one’s thoughts and emotions. The underlying notion behind most of these strategies is that chronic stress is harmful to our heath. It’s not only responsible for poor immune functioning, but has long-lasting negative consequences for our cognitive abilities. Prolonged exposure to stress damages our hippocampus – a brain structure responsible for consolidating short-term memory to long-term memory (Sapolsky, Krey, & McEwen, 1986). So, looking after yourself is the key to good mental wellbeing (and happiness). But more importantly, along with lowering one’s risk of vascular diseases, it plays a key role in protecting against dementia.